What books or sites can I refer to to improve my logical thinking abilities?

Basically logical thinking is something which develops on its own from time to time but still you can start solving any competitive exam study material for LR.
It might help in proliferating your logical knowledge.

This a good book:

A Modern Approach to Logical Reasoning by R.S.Aggarwal

You can buy a ebook or buy a paperback book.

Logical thinking and problem solving skills, contrary to much public opinion and even college classes, etc. has nothing to do with how much knowledge or information is in your head it also isn’t just a trick in the way you think… it takes serious wisdom and understanding the big-picture about how things work, in reality, generally and specifically. You can’t ever get that from anyone else. The best teachers are people who guide you to discover truth. Actual teaching is becoming extinct in our society. Our schools, k-12 and even colleges are filled with “tellers” and very few actual “teachers”

Logical thinking and problem solving skills, contrary to much public opinion and even college classes, etc. has nothing to do with how much knowledge or information is in your head it also isn’t just a trick in the way you think… it takes serious wisdom and understanding the big-picture about how things work, in reality, generally and specifically. You can’t ever get that from anyone else. The best teachers are people who guide you to discover truth. Actual teaching is becoming extinct in our society. Our schools, k-12 and even colleges are filled with “tellers” and very few actual “teachers” any more.

For that reason, serious problem solving and logical thinking skills, are some of the most rare virtues around. Working in nature, where you begin to reap the cause and effects of your own labor, is one of the best habits you will ever develop. Plant a garden, learn how to build things, work with animals, work with your hands and discover for yourself how nature works and the universe operates… but then relate everything to your own life in practical application. It is a good thing to learn from others but learning is not about memorizing, it’s about discovering.

What you want to focus on is discovering principles. Principles are the most precious treasure on earth. they are always hidden beneath and in between what you think you already know. That doesn’t mean that simply working with your hands is the magic. Most people who work with their hands, still haven’t discovered principles.

Only wise and worthy mentors can help to uncover principles for you and then guide you how to discover them through your own practical experience with life. But you must be willing to do the work and discover them for yourself.

Unfortunately, even the vast majority of people who make a living helping to solve problems actually end up creating more problems than they solve because they lack the big-picture of life and reality. That only comes to a small few who have discovered that wisdom is a totally different thing than knowledge. The two are acquired in very different ways. Knowledge is based on information that can be memorized and passed from one person to another. You can stumble upon knowledge through experience but knowledge is all about “answers,” it breeds arrogance and inflated, false pride (most assumed knowledge today is not really knowledge at all but only naïve assumptions, which is really foolishness).

Wisdom on the other hand, is founded on principles. Wisdom is never contented with “answers,” because it knows there is always more…. Wisdom is entirely based on discovering better questions. Answers stop growth, questions demand and perpetuate growth… Since every piece of real truth is totally interdependent on every other truth, there is always more, better, greater improvements to make, regardless of whether you are at the bottom, top or anywhere between-of what you are trying to understand.

The great masters through time, became great masters because they never stopped learning, discovering and evolving. The only way they remain great masters is by never losing track of their leaders, mentors, masters….

Beware, however many, many today believe (and/or try to convince you) that they are wise and flaunt their money, positions, knowledge, influence, etc. Many even believe they have risen above ordinary mortals (talk about ego). But the truly wise and their followers are the ones willing to do what the masses are not willing to do… the hardest work they will ever undertake—their own self evolution. Even though difficult at first, it is only way to live with real fulfillment and genuine happiness that doesn’t fade with the lights and the music….

I have come to call, what everyone wants, but only a few have been willing to discover, the most valuable and precious treasure on earth… “The principles that birth intelligence, lead to wisdom and harness the laws of creation.”

Since you are a creator—that’s what you do, every moment of your life—create your own future reality, You can learn to create something much greater than you have done so far, regardless of how little or far you have come.

Once on that path, you will naturally see what is, over ride your ego that desperately tries to get you to find what will pacify you for the moment, so you don’t have to risk failure, and claim whatever rewards you want most. Intelligently taking those risks is the only path to wisdom and wisdom is the only environment that enables one to solve problems and see the perfect logic in the universe—and align your thoughts and behaviors with it…

There is no way to cut corners to gain wisdom—but it is the great shortcut to super success. Everything else is settle-for. You just must make the decision.

The efforts will pale by comparison to the rewards—IF you recognize and accept that it is all up to you, no one can ever come to your rescue, and then make it a life-style. There is no gimmick or tactic or trick, but once you make those commitments, the right mentors will show up and make all the difference.

Learn to love being uncomfortable, pushing yourself out of your comfort zones IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION and the world will be yours.

Let’s go catch your dreams .

Eldon Grant

Thinking with your heart is not always good for you. At times logical thinking can prevent you from making or repeating mistakes that may cost dear in future. It is assumed that people who think with their left brains are logical whereas those thinking with their right brains are more emotional and intuitive. Some people are born with high deductive ability which they cannot give up even if they try. Logical thinking can be a curse or boon; depending on the situation you are in. Logical thinking can blow off the mist created by emotions to show you the reality and factualness of the situation

Thinking with your heart is not always good for you. At times logical thinking can prevent you from making or repeating mistakes that may cost dear in future. It is assumed that people who think with their left brains are logical whereas those thinking with their right brains are more emotional and intuitive. Some people are born with high deductive ability which they cannot give up even if they try. Logical thinking can be a curse or boon; depending on the situation you are in. Logical thinking can blow off the mist created by emotions to show you the reality and factualness of the situation or people. When you become a logical person, you will be able to differentiate between truth and lies, solve your problems effectively and take right decisions which will benefit you and others. Often, the truth is staring back at us, but we tend to ignore it as we are blinded by our emotions. These are 6 easy ways that can help you think more logically, so that you will be able to look at the world more clearly with right reasoning.

1. Small details are important:

Sherlock Holmes said, ‘The world is full of obvious things which nobody by any chance ever observes.” The clue to logical thinking lies in being observant and noticing details. If you watch a person closely, you will be amazed to know how easy it to tell a lie from truth. Do not try to change facts so that they fit into your belief system, but build your beliefs on the facts. The trick of observation can be developed through practice and perseverance.

2. Work with puzzles:

Logical thinking is improved when you work on puzzles like Rubik’s cube, which demands deduction of results from all possible angels. The solution for puzzles is often described by the mnemonic SMART, which means the deductions should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bounded. Puzzles and games which involve rational thinking exercise the brain to work on logical thinking. With time thinking logically becomes a habit.

3. Hold on to your own beliefs:

Do not give in to arguments that show that all people believe in it, so it is true. There was a time when everybody believed that earth was flat and center of the universe, including all the major religions of the world. There is no need for you to accept something as true, just for the reason that you cannot prove it to be wrong. Hold on to your logical thinking and beliefs that come with it, no matter how much pressure others mount on you. Never underestimate the power of intuition and gut-feeling as illogical, as they can be quite reliable at times, especially when they are your own.

4. Build formidable defense against emotional blackmail:

Not many people like it when you think about them rationally; hence, they are bound to distract you with emotional blackmail or any other defense mechanism they are familiar with. If you are not strong with your own defense against such strategies, you will yield to the pressure sooner or later. Beware of your own defense mechanisms which may have developed over the period. When people try to vague, ask them to be specific and explain exactly what they mean.

5. Ask yourself questions:

When you are doing something irrational, stop and ask yourself the question why you are doing it? Look at the action and resulting consequences from all possible angles before moving ahead. Keep aside bias, patronizing and prejudices while making your decisions. Slow down, take deep breaths and be calm. You cannot be logical when you are stressed and running in hurry. Answer your questions honestly, racking your brain for right information.

6. Be prepared to handle the truth:

Many people stop being logical just because they are afraid to face the truth. Preparing yourself to handle the truth is the first step towards becoming a more logical person. Beware that truth can be quite painful at times; but there is no reason in living in a false world. Do not ignore facts, data, clues or cause that holds light to truth because you are afraid what it may reveal. Prepare yourself to handle the bitter truth.

Logical thinking can be learned. It can be learned by being a student of Socratic Learning. It can be learned by studying computer programming. It can be learned from studying Traditional Logic. It can be learned by learning what Logical Fallacies are.

Another way to learn logical thinking is to learn to see at least TWO SIDES to every argument. Today’s society is discouraging people to see anything from more than one side. If you question anything that is a popular view, especially if most “doctors” or “scientists” allegedly hold some view, you are labeled a “science denier.” I wrote a fairly

Logical thinking can be learned. It can be learned by being a student of Socratic Learning. It can be learned by studying computer programming. It can be learned from studying Traditional Logic. It can be learned by learning what Logical Fallacies are.

Another way to learn logical thinking is to learn to see at least TWO SIDES to every argument. Today’s society is discouraging people to see anything from more than one side. If you question anything that is a popular view, especially if most “doctors” or “scientists” allegedly hold some view, you are labeled a “science denier.” I wrote a fairly extensive answer to a Quora question that applies here:

Arnie Stanton's answer to Why do smart people deny science, or are they?

Unfortunately, less and less people are taught how to think or question things, which is the FOUNDATION of the Scientific Method. I argue in the linked answer that ALL of us are practicing the Scientific Method when we come up with theories, and then QUESTION them. To simply swallow a theory because it was taught to us is NOT being a scientist, but in reality is the TRUE science denier.

It is interesting that even the BIBLE teaches that we should look for at least TWO sides of every argument:

Proverbs 18:17

The first to state his case seems right until another comes and cross-examines him.

In the age when the Internet is more and more CENSORING information that questions the official beliefs on numerous topics, it is getting harder and harder to find that second or third side of any argument. I urge the reader to FIGHT for an UNCENSORED INTERNET!

Ah, a topic that would warm the cockles of Mr. Spock’s heart.

You didn’t say whether you were interested in philosophical logic (validity, syllogisms, etc.) or mathematical logic (Boolean algebra, axioms and Kurt Godel, etc).

One of the best books, because it’s entirely about logic, is Logic made easy/by Deborah J. Bennett; also Calne/Rationality.

Others:

Crimes against logic/Jamie Whyte

The Master Algorithm/includes logic in relation to machine learning

Goodbye Descartes/The end of logic/Keith Devlin

Thank you for arguing: what Aristotle and Homer Simpson can teach us/2010

Logical labyrinths/R. Smull

Ah, a topic that would warm the cockles of Mr. Spock’s heart.

You didn’t say whether you were interested in philosophical logic (validity, syllogisms, etc.) or mathematical logic (Boolean algebra, axioms and Kurt Godel, etc).

One of the best books, because it’s entirely about logic, is Logic made easy/by Deborah J. Bennett; also Calne/Rationality.

Others:

Crimes against logic/Jamie Whyte

The Master Algorithm/includes logic in relation to machine learning

Goodbye Descartes/The end of logic/Keith Devlin

Thank you for arguing: what Aristotle and Homer Simpson can teach us/2010

Logical labyrinths/R. Smullyan

Angles of reflection: logic and a mother’s love/Joan J. Richards

How to bake pi/lists reasons logic doesn’t always work

Godel Escher and Bach/Douglas Hofstadter/obviously for the Godel part

As far as experience goes, I don’t have a great memory, but basically I haven’t had the opportunity to use logic much in the real world. I think that unless you’re a philosopher, mathematician, computer scientist or debater, common sense and wisdom would be more important.

Thanks for the A2A.

They did a study of people once comparing people who studied logic with people who studied chess and found that teaching people chess helped them think logically even more so than teaching them logic.

The reason for that is that our brains are visual, and most of the tenets of logic don't map cleanly into that visual thinking. But chess is both logical and visual.

Ideas such as transposition, overloading of pieces, pawn chain weaknesses and the like play into logic well in ways that mesh with the brains visual processing nature.

So I'd recommend, assuming you want deep skills a

Thanks for the A2A.

They did a study of people once comparing people who studied logic with people who studied chess and found that teaching people chess helped them think logically even more so than teaching them logic.

The reason for that is that our brains are visual, and most of the tenets of logic don't map cleanly into that visual thinking. But chess is both logical and visual.

Ideas such as transposition, overloading of pieces, pawn chain weaknesses and the like play into logic well in ways that mesh with the brains visual processing nature.

So I'd recommend, assuming you want deep skills and are not in a hurry, taking up chess and reading some books on it, then looking at some classic games and playing against people online and against computer opponents and analyzing the games.

You'll find that this increases your ability to start combining logical thoughts.

Then learn things like common fallacies of thinking and other philosophical thoughts.

If you want to go the computer programming route, a good book is this one, Structure and interpretation of computer programs at http://deptinfo.unice.fr/~roy/sicp.pdf which takes things from a logician's perspective.

The most important single questions to start asking yourself are

1. If this is true what else must also be true?

2. If this is true what else must also be false?

3. If this is false what else must also be true?

4. If this is false what else must also be false?

Or, put more succinctly:

"If I know this one (or set of) thing(s), what else can I conclude and also know?"

One other thing I did for a while is played sudoko for fun, and after a couple of weeks started playing without using a pencil (doing the whole thing in my head). That will build up your ability to not only see relationships, but to pile one relationship on top of another.

But it has it's limits (not always easy to transfer the skill to other logic domains) and does get boring after a while, so mix it up.

You want superpowers…wonderful! May your tribe increase!

Two great things to ferret out from your question (1) you assume you need to think more logically in your life, and (2) you assume rightly that there is a truth worth pursuing in accord with reason.

Logic is not simply about knowing that someone’s thinking is in error. Many people have some intuition that the argument they disagree with doesn’t ‘smell right’. Grasping logical thinking will give you the added opportunity to ‘know’ why someone’s thinking is in error, and to explain why, and then to draw out the truth they have missed. I agre

You want superpowers…wonderful! May your tribe increase!

Two great things to ferret out from your question (1) you assume you need to think more logically in your life, and (2) you assume rightly that there is a truth worth pursuing in accord with reason.

Logic is not simply about knowing that someone’s thinking is in error. Many people have some intuition that the argument they disagree with doesn’t ‘smell right’. Grasping logical thinking will give you the added opportunity to ‘know’ why someone’s thinking is in error, and to explain why, and then to draw out the truth they have missed. I agree with one of the previous answers that you must both spend time developing logical skills, and that reading good books is not enough. But to suggest you must engage in deliberate critical thinking, without the critical thinking foundation that is ‘learned’ in guided practice is, well…illogical. You need to know what you don’t know before you try to apply what you know to deliberate critical thinking.

For example, you may watch those TV commercials that have some celebrity promoting their brand of perfume. You may think and say, “There’s something wrong with thinking it’s a good perfume because they’re famous.” But wouldn’t it be nice to say, “They’ve committed the fallacy of an improper conversion of an A proposition?” And then explain that by using examples that show the ridiculousness of using that improper logic elsewhere, oh, and you might call that technique reductio ad absurdum to make your point. So, learn to swim first!

And speaking of leaning to do something well first prior to doing it, read Mortimer J. Adler’s How to Read a Book. It’s is a good place to start to acclimate yourself to critical thinking. I told my own children that if they wanted to be able to read well, i.e., to not simply improve comprehension but to also squeeze the marrow from the bone, they should learn to read prior to reading. They thought that was funny. But this book sets the stage for how you not just read, but how you should approach a book, inquiring as to its theme and the author’s intentions. It gets you thinking! If you’re going to invest your time in a book, it needs to be a worthwhile pursuit. And following his method, you will find yourself able to explain not just ‘what the book was about’, but what meaning it may hold.

But then directly to logic. I suggest Peter Kreeft’s Socratic Logic: A Logic Using Socratic Method, Platonic Questions, and Aristotelian Principles. If you have never taken logic, nor studied it before, you will be hard-pressed to find a more thorough introduction, written in a digestible language. This is symbolic (syllogistic) logic, not mathematical (symbolic) logic. The latter is more efficient, but not nearly as applicable to daily life. Logic is a path to truth by being able to whittle away error, and through these discovered truths a path to become wise(r). Mathematicians and computer programmers, as intelligent as they may be as practitioners of symbolic logic, are not a class typically known for their wisdom—that doesn’t mean they’re not wise of course.

I will humbly offer you the same advice I gave my daughter when she took logic in her pursuit of philosophy and theology degrees. Be prepared to no longer watch TV news. You will now KNOW the fallacies that are built on top of fallacies. This new-found ability of yours will also spill out into your everyday conversations, which will equally leave you frustrated as you find yourself continually trying to clarify the terms, reconstruct the statements, or reorient the invalid argument of the person in your conversation…in the end you will become lonely in your mind; better than NO one else, but a clear thinker, and unfortunately different…you now have a superpower!

I can think of no websites that teach or represent unbiased, one-sided Philosophy.

Also, Philosophy has 2,300 years of literary classics, and literally thousands upon thousands of books and textbooks in circulation.

So, a beginner can begin, not by reading Philosophy, but by reading the History of Philosophy. To this end I recommend a book that is free on the Internet:

  • The Story of Philosophy (1926) by Will Durant

The proper beginning for the beginner is at the start — with the first philosophers, Socrates-Plato-Aristotle. That’s where Durant begins.

The beginner should stop after Chapter Six. Sinc

I can think of no websites that teach or represent unbiased, one-sided Philosophy.

Also, Philosophy has 2,300 years of literary classics, and literally thousands upon thousands of books and textbooks in circulation.

So, a beginner can begin, not by reading Philosophy, but by reading the History of Philosophy. To this end I recommend a book that is free on the Internet:

  • The Story of Philosophy (1926) by Will Durant

The proper beginning for the beginner is at the start — with the first philosophers, Socrates-Plato-Aristotle. That’s where Durant begins.

The beginner should stop after Chapter Six. Sincerely. After Hegel there begins a two-century decline into Irrationalist Philosophy, and an extreme reaction.

Stop after Hegel and reflect. Write an essay on what you’ve read about geniuses from 400 BCE to 1810 CE. That’s more than enough material.

Stay clear of the “postmodern” tar pit for at least two years (or ten). Sincerely.

How can I improve my logical thinking?

Thinking logically is an ability, a skill.

Practice active open mindedness and you’re half way there. Learn to avoid premature conclusions, and moving with the herd, and you’re halfway farther than you were.

The rest is just being smart enough to find the accuracy that other people miss. Usually that involves context. Don’t be afraid to look at things from all sides.

The more you practice the ability, the easier it will become.

Don’t be lazy.

You may be interested in my prior answer that is about critical thinking:

Brian White's answer to What causes a lack of critical thinking skills?

Both critical thinking and intelligence are real. Neither can be taught. There is no presently practical way to boost intelligence. You cannot do it by diet, supplements, meditation, brain training, exercise, willpower, inspiration, computer games, or any other practical means. In a laboratory, it is possible to boost intelligence by the use of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. So far, this has not been converted into a practical method. You ca

You may be interested in my prior answer that is about critical thinking:

Brian White's answer to What causes a lack of critical thinking skills?

Both critical thinking and intelligence are real. Neither can be taught. There is no presently practical way to boost intelligence. You cannot do it by diet, supplements, meditation, brain training, exercise, willpower, inspiration, computer games, or any other practical means. In a laboratory, it is possible to boost intelligence by the use of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. So far, this has not been converted into a practical method. You can read about all of the methods that have been tried by serious intelligence researchers in Chapter 5 of this excellent book: Haier, R. J. (2017). The Neuroscience of Intelligence, Cambridge University Press.

There are a number of very interesting and engaging books to help you. Here are some I would recommend:

How to Think About Weird Things by Theodore Schick

Think:: Why You Should Question Everything by Guy Harrison

The Art of Thinking Clearly by Rolf Dobelli

Sway: The Irrsesistable Pull of Irrational Behavior by Ori Brafman

Don’t Believe Everything You Think by Thomas Kida

Why People Believe Weird Things by Michael Shermer

And, I’ll thrown in my own: Improve Your Thinking.