At the consumer level there are apps that are placed on the phone. Apple IOS has a very good system for locating phones.
Due to privacy issues consumers do not have access to mobile network operations without a hacking or illegal method. law enforcement often uses triangulation methods to get positions. They depend on the networks to cooperate in this method. In government operations the MEID can be accessed via satellite, I asssume. These are secured and controlled.
So at the consumer level there no legal ways to circumvent this for now.