Could you recommend a book that helps to improve the logical thinking (relying on your own experience)?

When I was a teenager, I learned a lot from the Perry Mason series of Erle Stanley Gardner. It is not especially well written or fascinating, but that is where I learned to think.

I also learned a lot from the plays of George Bernard Shaw. His humor is derived from taking the reverse opinion of everybody. It is funny, but it makes you think about where you stand and why.

In philosophy, I did not find logic (in math) very useful to me, because at my level, it is just following some rules and looking at the table. On the other hand, I learned a lot from Game theory.

Free university course: Game The

When I was a teenager, I learned a lot from the Perry Mason series of Erle Stanley Gardner. It is not especially well written or fascinating, but that is where I learned to think.

I also learned a lot from the plays of George Bernard Shaw. His humor is derived from taking the reverse opinion of everybody. It is funny, but it makes you think about where you stand and why.

In philosophy, I did not find logic (in math) very useful to me, because at my level, it is just following some rules and looking at the table. On the other hand, I learned a lot from Game theory.

Free university course: Game Theory | Coursera

Ah, a topic that would warm the cockles of Mr. Spock’s heart.

You didn’t say whether you were interested in philosophical logic (validity, syllogisms, etc.) or mathematical logic (Boolean algebra, axioms and Kurt Godel, etc).

One of the best books, because it’s entirely about logic, is Logic made easy/by Deborah J. Bennett; also Calne/Rationality.

Others:

Crimes against logic/Jamie Whyte

The Master Algorithm/includes logic in relation to machine learning

Goodbye Descartes/The end of logic/Keith Devlin

Thank you for arguing: what Aristotle and Homer Simpson can teach us/2010

Logical labyrinths/R. Smull

Ah, a topic that would warm the cockles of Mr. Spock’s heart.

You didn’t say whether you were interested in philosophical logic (validity, syllogisms, etc.) or mathematical logic (Boolean algebra, axioms and Kurt Godel, etc).

One of the best books, because it’s entirely about logic, is Logic made easy/by Deborah J. Bennett; also Calne/Rationality.

Others:

Crimes against logic/Jamie Whyte

The Master Algorithm/includes logic in relation to machine learning

Goodbye Descartes/The end of logic/Keith Devlin

Thank you for arguing: what Aristotle and Homer Simpson can teach us/2010

Logical labyrinths/R. Smullyan

Angles of reflection: logic and a mother’s love/Joan J. Richards

How to bake pi/lists reasons logic doesn’t always work

Godel Escher and Bach/Douglas Hofstadter/obviously for the Godel part

As far as experience goes, I don’t have a great memory, but basically I haven’t had the opportunity to use logic much in the real world. I think that unless you’re a philosopher, mathematician, computer scientist or debater, common sense and wisdom would be more important.

Thinking with your heart is not always good for you. At times logical thinking can prevent you from making or repeating mistakes that may cost dear in future. It is assumed that people who think with their left brains are logical whereas those thinking with their right brains are more emotional and intuitive. Some people are born with high deductive ability which they cannot give up even if they try. Logical thinking can be a curse or boon; depending on the situation you are in. Logical thinking can blow off the mist created by emotions to show you the reality and factualness of the situation

Thinking with your heart is not always good for you. At times logical thinking can prevent you from making or repeating mistakes that may cost dear in future. It is assumed that people who think with their left brains are logical whereas those thinking with their right brains are more emotional and intuitive. Some people are born with high deductive ability which they cannot give up even if they try. Logical thinking can be a curse or boon; depending on the situation you are in. Logical thinking can blow off the mist created by emotions to show you the reality and factualness of the situation or people. When you become a logical person, you will be able to differentiate between truth and lies, solve your problems effectively and take right decisions which will benefit you and others. Often, the truth is staring back at us, but we tend to ignore it as we are blinded by our emotions. These are 6 easy ways that can help you think more logically, so that you will be able to look at the world more clearly with right reasoning.

1. Small details are important:

Sherlock Holmes said, ‘The world is full of obvious things which nobody by any chance ever observes.” The clue to logical thinking lies in being observant and noticing details. If you watch a person closely, you will be amazed to know how easy it to tell a lie from truth. Do not try to change facts so that they fit into your belief system, but build your beliefs on the facts. The trick of observation can be developed through practice and perseverance.

2. Work with puzzles:

Logical thinking is improved when you work on puzzles like Rubik’s cube, which demands deduction of results from all possible angels. The solution for puzzles is often described by the mnemonic SMART, which means the deductions should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bounded. Puzzles and games which involve rational thinking exercise the brain to work on logical thinking. With time thinking logically becomes a habit.

3. Hold on to your own beliefs:

Do not give in to arguments that show that all people believe in it, so it is true. There was a time when everybody believed that earth was flat and center of the universe, including all the major religions of the world. There is no need for you to accept something as true, just for the reason that you cannot prove it to be wrong. Hold on to your logical thinking and beliefs that come with it, no matter how much pressure others mount on you. Never underestimate the power of intuition and gut-feeling as illogical, as they can be quite reliable at times, especially when they are your own.

4. Build formidable defense against emotional blackmail:

Not many people like it when you think about them rationally; hence, they are bound to distract you with emotional blackmail or any other defense mechanism they are familiar with. If you are not strong with your own defense against such strategies, you will yield to the pressure sooner or later. Beware of your own defense mechanisms which may have developed over the period. When people try to vague, ask them to be specific and explain exactly what they mean.

5. Ask yourself questions:

When you are doing something irrational, stop and ask yourself the question why you are doing it? Look at the action and resulting consequences from all possible angles before moving ahead. Keep aside bias, patronizing and prejudices while making your decisions. Slow down, take deep breaths and be calm. You cannot be logical when you are stressed and running in hurry. Answer your questions honestly, racking your brain for right information.

6. Be prepared to handle the truth:

Many people stop being logical just because they are afraid to face the truth. Preparing yourself to handle the truth is the first step towards becoming a more logical person. Beware that truth can be quite painful at times; but there is no reason in living in a false world. Do not ignore facts, data, clues or cause that holds light to truth because you are afraid what it may reveal. Prepare yourself to handle the bitter truth.

Logical thinking can be learned. It can be learned by being a student of Socratic Learning. It can be learned by studying computer programming. It can be learned from studying Traditional Logic. It can be learned by learning what Logical Fallacies are.

Another way to learn logical thinking is to learn to see at least TWO SIDES to every argument. Today’s society is discouraging people to see anything from more than one side. If you question anything that is a popular view, especially if most “doctors” or “scientists” allegedly hold some view, you are labeled a “science denier.” I wrote a fairly

Logical thinking can be learned. It can be learned by being a student of Socratic Learning. It can be learned by studying computer programming. It can be learned from studying Traditional Logic. It can be learned by learning what Logical Fallacies are.

Another way to learn logical thinking is to learn to see at least TWO SIDES to every argument. Today’s society is discouraging people to see anything from more than one side. If you question anything that is a popular view, especially if most “doctors” or “scientists” allegedly hold some view, you are labeled a “science denier.” I wrote a fairly extensive answer to a Quora question that applies here:

Arnie Stanton's answer to Why do smart people deny science, or are they?

Unfortunately, less and less people are taught how to think or question things, which is the FOUNDATION of the Scientific Method. I argue in the linked answer that ALL of us are practicing the Scientific Method when we come up with theories, and then QUESTION them. To simply swallow a theory because it was taught to us is NOT being a scientist, but in reality is the TRUE science denier.

It is interesting that even the BIBLE teaches that we should look for at least TWO sides of every argument:

Proverbs 18:17

The first to state his case seems right until another comes and cross-examines him.

In the age when the Internet is more and more CENSORING information that questions the official beliefs on numerous topics, it is getting harder and harder to find that second or third side of any argument. I urge the reader to FIGHT for an UNCENSORED INTERNET!

How do you improve your logical thinking as compared to your creative thinking…

I see this question has already been answered by many people and I am quite late to respond, nevertheless I will expound how would have I achieved it.

Creativity by essence of it all meanings and interpretations - is the newness or originality in the expression of any existing idea.

It is more of how you say something when you say it.

It is more of having the new eyes to look at something when the view has never changed.

So, it is obviously subjective.

You, having your own personal style to say, do or see something, is w

How do you improve your logical thinking as compared to your creative thinking…

I see this question has already been answered by many people and I am quite late to respond, nevertheless I will expound how would have I achieved it.

Creativity by essence of it all meanings and interpretations - is the newness or originality in the expression of any existing idea.

It is more of how you say something when you say it.

It is more of having the new eyes to look at something when the view has never changed.

So, it is obviously subjective.

You, having your own personal style to say, do or see something, is what makes you creative.

Now, when we think about logic, it is rational and causative. It could be taught to a person to be reasonable and to act a certain way, in order to achieve a certain outcome, as opposed to being spontaneous.

It is more of a pattern recognition and then building over that pattern thing.

It is a function of understanding rather than intuitive originality.

Remember that, when we talk about seeing a pattern, we are talking about being able to see the puzzle pieces, and the consequent big picture. A pattern itself means that it has pre-existed, as opposed to creative thinking which in itself is original and indigenous.

So you kind of train your mind, to link patterns and to look to their possible outcomes and thus you can predict the behavior, and the outcomes of situations.

Reasoning and analytical thinking can be learned by guiding your mind to think in a certain way.

And as one person already pointed out here, very importantly :

‘Put yourself out of the equation and try to look at the situations objectively.’

You want superpowers…wonderful! May your tribe increase!

Two great things to ferret out from your question (1) you assume you need to think more logically in your life, and (2) you assume rightly that there is a truth worth pursuing in accord with reason.

Logic is not simply about knowing that someone’s thinking is in error. Many people have some intuition that the argument they disagree with doesn’t ‘smell right’. Grasping logical thinking will give you the added opportunity to ‘know’ why someone’s thinking is in error, and to explain why, and then to draw out the truth they have missed. I agre

You want superpowers…wonderful! May your tribe increase!

Two great things to ferret out from your question (1) you assume you need to think more logically in your life, and (2) you assume rightly that there is a truth worth pursuing in accord with reason.

Logic is not simply about knowing that someone’s thinking is in error. Many people have some intuition that the argument they disagree with doesn’t ‘smell right’. Grasping logical thinking will give you the added opportunity to ‘know’ why someone’s thinking is in error, and to explain why, and then to draw out the truth they have missed. I agree with one of the previous answers that you must both spend time developing logical skills, and that reading good books is not enough. But to suggest you must engage in deliberate critical thinking, without the critical thinking foundation that is ‘learned’ in guided practice is, well…illogical. You need to know what you don’t know before you try to apply what you know to deliberate critical thinking.

For example, you may watch those TV commercials that have some celebrity promoting their brand of perfume. You may think and say, “There’s something wrong with thinking it’s a good perfume because they’re famous.” But wouldn’t it be nice to say, “They’ve committed the fallacy of an improper conversion of an A proposition?” And then explain that by using examples that show the ridiculousness of using that improper logic elsewhere, oh, and you might call that technique reductio ad absurdum to make your point. So, learn to swim first!

And speaking of leaning to do something well first prior to doing it, read Mortimer J. Adler’s How to Read a Book. It’s is a good place to start to acclimate yourself to critical thinking. I told my own children that if they wanted to be able to read well, i.e., to not simply improve comprehension but to also squeeze the marrow from the bone, they should learn to read prior to reading. They thought that was funny. But this book sets the stage for how you not just read, but how you should approach a book, inquiring as to its theme and the author’s intentions. It gets you thinking! If you’re going to invest your time in a book, it needs to be a worthwhile pursuit. And following his method, you will find yourself able to explain not just ‘what the book was about’, but what meaning it may hold.

But then directly to logic. I suggest Peter Kreeft’s Socratic Logic: A Logic Using Socratic Method, Platonic Questions, and Aristotelian Principles. If you have never taken logic, nor studied it before, you will be hard-pressed to find a more thorough introduction, written in a digestible language. This is symbolic (syllogistic) logic, not mathematical (symbolic) logic. The latter is more efficient, but not nearly as applicable to daily life. Logic is a path to truth by being able to whittle away error, and through these discovered truths a path to become wise(r). Mathematicians and computer programmers, as intelligent as they may be as practitioners of symbolic logic, are not a class typically known for their wisdom—that doesn’t mean they’re not wise of course.

I will humbly offer you the same advice I gave my daughter when she took logic in her pursuit of philosophy and theology degrees. Be prepared to no longer watch TV news. You will now KNOW the fallacies that are built on top of fallacies. This new-found ability of yours will also spill out into your everyday conversations, which will equally leave you frustrated as you find yourself continually trying to clarify the terms, reconstruct the statements, or reorient the invalid argument of the person in your conversation…in the end you will become lonely in your mind; better than NO one else, but a clear thinker, and unfortunately different…you now have a superpower!

Tip 1: Learn the language ‘C’ ~You might be an expert .NET, Java or PHP developer, but I would recommend that you MUST learn ‘C. We all know why ‘C’ is the most powerful programming language, but I am not recommending learning ‘C’ to you because of its power in programming.‘C’ offers you a structured style of
programming. You have one file with the main() method and the execution
begins from there and the execution flow proceeds as you have directed it to.The main advantage in ‘C’ is that it allows you to play around with memory directly. This I believe is very important if you need to under

Tip 1: Learn the language ‘C’ ~You might be an expert .NET, Java or PHP developer, but I would recommend that you MUST learn ‘C. We all know why ‘C’ is the most powerful programming language, but I am not recommending learning ‘C’ to you because of its power in programming.‘C’ offers you a structured style of
programming. You have one file with the main() method and the execution
begins from there and the execution flow proceeds as you have directed it to.The main advantage in ‘C’ is that it allows you to play around with memory directly. This I believe is very important if you need to understand how data is passed from one memory block to another. The reason is that you start to visualize in your minds eye how data moves in your program.The next step is to develop programs that will help you improve your logic.

Tip 2: Develop programs that test your mind skills ~Ever heard of the Fibonacci series?Ever built a program that will allow the user to type his/her name and allow to bounce off that name on the screen from one corner to another like a ball?Ever thought of creating a library for a Menu Bar system?All these are examples of programs that you can develop to improve your mind and programming skills.I remember the time I was at college and I would spends nights after nights to build my own library for screen interface for menu bars,
windows, text fields, etc. In a UNIX box I would use the ncurses library and build it. I would then try and replicate the same in Windows using the conio.h file and some assembly code.Try to develop as many programs as possible in ‘C’, this will help you improve your programming logic.Following are some programs that I can help you with:Write a program (WAP) to find the max, min, average and total of numbers entered by the userWAP to accept a string from the user and find the number of vowels and the vowels that got repeated the most.WAP to accept an array of numbers and sort the same using Bubble Sort Algorithm.WAP to accept a string from the user and print all its permutations and combinations.WAP to accept to accept a number from the user and test if it is a Fibonacci number or not.I can go on and on with such questions.

Tip 3: Locate code and try to understand why it was written that way ~Use
the internet or college library to locate code written by another
developer. Try to understand why it was written that way and understand
it completely. Once you have understood why it was written they way it
is written, check to see if you could improve that logic.The main objective of this exercise is to get your brain thinking.
Tip 4: Solve logic puzzles ~Check
your local newspaper. One section of your newspaper will be filled with
series of logic puzzles and riddles. Try solving them. Don’t get
disheartened if you can’t solve them or take a long time to solve them.
Remember that you are in the learning and improving stage. Things will
be slow, but you will make progress.Your brain will be trained to think
differently with every puzzle that you try to solve. This is because now
you know a new method of solving. You could apply the same thinking
pattern to your programs as well.As a standard prescription, I would
prescribe solving Suduku puzzles. Will help you improve your logic,
concentration and skills of grouping and organizing.

Tip 5: Help other people build logic ~Once
you start feeling confident about yourself and your logic capabilities,
you should immediately start helping people. Subscribe to a forum and
start helping people there. The benefit of helping people on forums is
that you get to learn new problems that people face. This immensely adds
to your knowledge. Just imagine the power you would have once you start
to learn problems faced by other people and how you or someone else
resolved it.I have seen friends following this advice but shying at
the last moment. Why? Because they don’t want to be ridiculed in the
forum. Don’t be scared of other people ridiculing you. Look at it as a
learning experience. People who ridicule you would be the one’s with
more experience… and learning from people who are experienced is no harm
at all.

Anything outside your comfort zone can be recommended. Thomas S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is good not only to make you more aware of the theoretical “relativity” of paradigms, but also to train your thinking about the controversial aspects of it, and perhaps improve your understanding of what you regard as knowledge. A good introduction of logic will train your thinking, probably make you aware of new possibilities, and make you understand the limits and range of validity.

Books on semiotics and literary theory or cultural studies will help you understand culture. Plato’s

Anything outside your comfort zone can be recommended. Thomas S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is good not only to make you more aware of the theoretical “relativity” of paradigms, but also to train your thinking about the controversial aspects of it, and perhaps improve your understanding of what you regard as knowledge. A good introduction of logic will train your thinking, probably make you aware of new possibilities, and make you understand the limits and range of validity.

Books on semiotics and literary theory or cultural studies will help you understand culture. Plato’s Apology (or Socrates’), very short, and the first seven books of the Republic (with emphasis on IV-VII) and Meno, again very short, are good introductions into the idea of Philosophy. (Among other things Thomas Kuhn, and your own historical distance, will help you avoid any dogmtism or reductionism of metaphors, parables or models, though there aren’t that many yet. And Plato’s dialogues make extensive use of “aporias” and are intended to train critical and rational thinking.)

Any overview or collection (as often in introductions) of theoretical or interpretative approaches will help you think critically and (no less) objectively, while giving you a more thorough understanding and picture. More extensively reading those you deem best or more interesting (at the time) will give you a better grounding and independent competence.

You may be interested in my prior answer that is about critical thinking:

Brian White's answer to What causes a lack of critical thinking skills?

Both critical thinking and intelligence are real. Neither can be taught. There is no presently practical way to boost intelligence. You cannot do it by diet, supplements, meditation, brain training, exercise, willpower, inspiration, computer games, or any other practical means. In a laboratory, it is possible to boost intelligence by the use of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. So far, this has not been converted into a practical method. You ca

You may be interested in my prior answer that is about critical thinking:

Brian White's answer to What causes a lack of critical thinking skills?

Both critical thinking and intelligence are real. Neither can be taught. There is no presently practical way to boost intelligence. You cannot do it by diet, supplements, meditation, brain training, exercise, willpower, inspiration, computer games, or any other practical means. In a laboratory, it is possible to boost intelligence by the use of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. So far, this has not been converted into a practical method. You can read about all of the methods that have been tried by serious intelligence researchers in Chapter 5 of this excellent book: Haier, R. J. (2017). The Neuroscience of Intelligence, Cambridge University Press.

Reading is great because it’s essentially stepping into another person’s mind which can be clarifying, illuminating, and helpful.

The first time I read geometric proofs (step by step arguments) or heavy-math, my understanding about rigor, clarity of thought, being specific and detail-oriented improved greatly.

Some works I’d recommend:

(1) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus - Wittgenstien’s famous first book and also the work in which truth-tables (used all over logic) were created.

(2) Principia Mathematica - Russell and Whitehead - first to prove that yes, 1+1 does equal 2!

(3) Godel’s 2nd Incomplete

Reading is great because it’s essentially stepping into another person’s mind which can be clarifying, illuminating, and helpful.

The first time I read geometric proofs (step by step arguments) or heavy-math, my understanding about rigor, clarity of thought, being specific and detail-oriented improved greatly.

Some works I’d recommend:

(1) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus - Wittgenstien’s famous first book and also the work in which truth-tables (used all over logic) were created.

(2) Principia Mathematica - Russell and Whitehead - first to prove that yes, 1+1 does equal 2!

(3) Godel’s 2nd Incompleteness Theorem - Kurt Godel’s great paper - are there mathematical truths that cannot be proved? Yes.

(4) Euclid’s Elements - Good example of geometric proof both because it’s the first book about geometry and because it proceeds using step-by-step axioms!

(5) Any professional logic journal - Journal of Mathematical Logic, Review of Symbolic Logic, Journal of Symbolic Logic[1]

Footnotes

There are a number of very interesting and engaging books to help you. Here are some I would recommend:

How to Think About Weird Things by Theodore Schick

Think:: Why You Should Question Everything by Guy Harrison

The Art of Thinking Clearly by Rolf Dobelli

Sway: The Irrsesistable Pull of Irrational Behavior by Ori Brafman

Don’t Believe Everything You Think by Thomas Kida

Why People Believe Weird Things by Michael Shermer

And, I’ll thrown in my own: Improve Your Thinking.

This a good book:

A Modern Approach to Logical Reasoning by R.S.Aggarwal

You can buy a ebook or buy a paperback book.