Can I use Stack Overflow for work?

Absolutely YES.

You should use every resource available to you to do your job to the best of your ability. When I started my first permanent job in IT I was given three IBM reference manuals and that was it. There was no internet then.

I have happily worked on Linux now for many years. I can write you any shell script you might need. But being 63 little of it sticks in my brain anymore. I know how, when and why to write a script. But I am totally reliant on my friend Google to remind me of syntax etc. It doesn’t stop me doing a good job.

If you mean looking for help and information, of course you can. I reckon many use it days to day.

You should run from any company that does not encourage you to use Stack Overflow for work.